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Amogy and LSB Industries sign MoU for low-carbon ammonia fuel

The companies will collaborate on the evaluation and development of a pilot program that integrates LSB’s low carbon ammonia and Amogy’s ammonia-to-power solution.

Amogy Inc. and LSB Industries, Inc. have entered into a memorandum of understanding (MOU) aimed at promoting the adoption of low-carbon ammonia as a marine fuel, initially for the U.S. inland waterways transportation sector, according to a news release.

Through joint efforts, the companies will focus on advancing the understanding, utilization, and advocacy of low-carbon ammonia as a sustainable fuel.

Pursuant to the MOU, the companies will collaborate on the evaluation and development of a pilot program that integrates LSB’s low carbon ammonia and Amogy’s ammonia-to-power solution. Upon successful completion of the evaluation and pilot program, the companies expect to further collaborate on a larger-scale development, including exploration of opportunities for development of an end-to-end supply chain of low carbon ammonia and deployment of Amogy technology across multiple applications, including maritime vessels. The evaluation and pilot program includes potential engagement with other parties across the ammonia value chain. The two parties will also collaborate on various advocacy, education, and outreach efforts regarding the use of ammonia as a fuel.

“We’re delighted by this opportunity to work with LSB to advance the development of a low-carbon ammonia supply chain primarily in the US,” said Seonghoon Woo, CEO of Amogy. “The success of this collaboration will be a key step toward solidifying ammonia’s position as a comprehensive solution for decarbonizing the commercial transportation sector across the entire value chain, from the upstream production to the downstream usage.”

President, and Chief Executive Officer of LSB Industries, Mark Behrman, stated, “Our vision at LSB is to be a leader in the energy transition through the production of low and no carbon products. This collaboration agreement is an exciting step in our journey toward achieving our goals and we’re thrilled to be working with such an outstanding partner in Amogy.”

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Hy24 and Masdar in green hydrogen co-development and investment framework

The Hy24-managed Clean Hydrogen Infrastructure Fund expects that co-investment and co-development opportunities will be made available to Masdar over a five-year time span.

Masdar and Hy24 have signed a strategic joint development and investment framework agreement to foster large-scale green hydrogen projects, according to a news release.

Masdar and Hy24 agreed a framework to explore the development and investment in projects along the Power-to-X value chain, which involves producing renewable power converted via electrolyzers into green hydrogen and, subsequently, its derivatives such as green ammonia, e-methanol, sustainable aviation fuel and liquid hydrogen. The companies will focus on projects located in key regional hubs across Europe, the Americas, Asia Pacific and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).

The Hy24-managed “Clean Hydrogen Infrastructure Fund” expects that co-investment and co-development opportunities will be made available to Masdar, which could represent up to €2bn of investments in the next five years. Green hydrogen will play a key role in enabling faster and more widespread global adoption of renewable energy, helping the planet to meet net-zero goals.

The agreement reinforces Hy24’s role as a catalyst in fostering the hydrogen economy and will leverage Masdar’s 20 GW of renewable energy projects worldwide, enabling the two leaders to target exploration of larger transactions and project developments across broader geographies at scale and pace. The agreement will also open new investment opportunities for Hy24 in the Middle East and North Africa and benefit from Ardian’s long-standing partnerships established in the region under the leadership of François-Aïssa Touazi (Chairman Ardian Ltd, Abu Dhabi). Hy24 is a joint venture between Ardian, Europe’s largest private investment house, and FiveT Hydrogen, a clean hydrogen investment platform.

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SLB acquires majority ownership in carbon capture firm

SLB will pay $380m to purchase 80% of Aker Carbon Capture Holding AS (ACCH), which holds the business of ACC, and will contribute the SLB carbon capture business to the combined entity.

NYSE-listed SLB has agreed to combine its carbon capture business with Aker Carbon Capture (ACC) to support accelerated industrial decarbonization at scale.

The combination will leverage ACC’s commercial carbon capture product offering and SLB’s new technology developments and industrialization capability, according to a news release. It will create a vehicle for accelerating the introduction of disruptive early-stage technology into the global market on a commercial, proven platform. Following the transaction, SLB will own 80% of the combined business and ACC will own 20%.

SLB will pay NOK 4.12 billion ($380m) to purchase 80% of Aker Carbon Capture Holding AS (ACCH), which holds the business of ACC, and will contribute the SLB carbon capture business to the combined entity. SLB may also make additional payments of up to NOK 1.36 billion over the next three years based on the performance of the business.

The transaction is subject to regulatory approvals and is expected to close by the end of the second quarter, 2024.

“For CCUS to have the expected impact on supporting global net-zero ambitions, it will need to scale up 100-200 times in less than three decades,” said Olivier Le Peuch, chief executive officer, SLB. “Crucial to this scale-up is the ability to lower capture costs, which often represent as much as 50-70% of the total spend of a CCUS project. We are excited to create this business with ACC to accelerate the deployment of carbon capture technologies that will shift the economics of carbon capture across high-emitting industrial sectors.”

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Largest NorthAm SAF producer on IPO path

Montana Renewables, now the largest producer of SAF in North America, is talking to bulge-bracket banks about a public listing that could occur within one year.

Montana Renewables, a subsidiary of Calumet Specialty Products Partners and now the largest producer of sustainable aviation fuel in North America, is on a path to list publicly through an IPO that could occur within one year.

The company as of last year was working with Lazard to review strategic options after receiving inbound interest from strategic players, a process that amounts to “an abundance of riches,” Bruce Fleming, CEO of Montana Renewables, said this morning.

The Montana Renewables facility is a SAF, renewable diesel, and renewable hydrogen platform producing an initial run-rate of 30 million gallons of SAF per year, ramping up to 60 million gallons into 2024 and a potential further expansion to 230 million gallons. The complex completed its startup in late April.

A key financial pivot point for Montana Renewables will be the outcome of its loan guarantee application with the Department of Energy, Fleming said. As of March, the subsidiary had been invited to submit a Part II application for a $600m loan guarantee through the Title XVII Innovative Clean Energy Loan Guarantee Program.

“That is a material strategic anchor,” Fleming said. “With a clean balance sheet, the IPO is enabled; the over-under from the bulge bracket banks that we’re talking to is centered on nine months.

The process could unfold more quickly, he said, noting that future speculation depends on market conditions in which to execute on an IPO.

“Knock on wood, if the world economy is going to be on a stable footing, then we’re going to have a pretty compelling pure-play energy transition offering,” he said. “It’s not a small thing to suddenly be the biggest SAF producer in North America that nobody ever heard of.”

Balance sheet

On April 19, MRL closed a $75 million bridge loan with I Squared Capital. The bridge loan bears a variable rate of interest at SOFR plus 6.0 to 7.3% per annum and we have the flexibility to prepay 50% of principal under the bridge loan from free cash flow by the end of 2024.

In August, 2022, Warburg Pincus agreed to invest $250m in MRL in the form of a participating preferred equity security, which values MRL at a pre-commissioning enterprise value of $2.25bn.

Stonebriar Commercial Finance invested an additional $350m through a pair of sale and leaseback contracts on top of its existing $50m commitment to MRL. The sale and leaseback transactions carry an approximate 12.3% cost of capital and offer certain strategic early termination options. Concurrent with those transactions, the $300m convertible investment from Oaktree Capital Management L.P. in MRL was retired.

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Exclusive: Mississippi green hydrogen developer assembling banks for debt raise

The developer of a potentially massive network of green hydrogen production, transport and salt cavern storage — estimated to cost billions — is seeking banks to support a project debt raise.

Hy Stor, the developer of hydrogen generation and salt cavern storage, is currently raising “billions” in project finance for the first phase of its home state hub in Mississippi, Chief Commercial Officer Claire Behar said in an interview.

The first phase is expected to enter commercial service in 2026, guided by customers, Behar said.

Connor Clark & Lunn are equity partners in the Mississippi hub and is helping Hy Stor with its debt raise. Hy Stor is working with King & Spalding as legal advisor.

“We are already seeking banks and lining up our needed debt,” Behar said. She declined to say a precise amount the company will raise but said it will be in the billions.

Hy Stor plans to soon announce their renewable development partner to build dedicated off grid renewables, Behar said. The same is true for offtake in non-intermittent 24-hour industries like steel, plastic and fertilizer manufacturing.

“The customers are willing to pay that twenty-to-thirty percent premium that the market would need,” Behar said. “The business case is there.”

When asked if traditionally carbon intensive industrial manufacturing interests were actively seeking to co-locate with Hy Stor in Mississippi, Behar said the company has been advancing those agreements and hopes to have announcements soon. 
There is evidence of this type of activity in the state. Recently American steel manufacturer Steel Dynamics announced Columbus, Mississippi as the location of its upcoming aluminum flat rolled millwith a focus on decarbonization. Job postings for engineering roles at a separate facility detail plans to convert biomass into a direct carbon replacement suitable for steelmaking. 

Hy Stor hopes to have announcements in the coming weeks about a co-location opportunity, she added. Both domestic and international strategics are interested in the geology offering co-located salt cavern storage and geography offering river and deepwater port logistics networks, as well as highway and rail corridors.

Off-grid renewable generation means the company is not at the mercy of transmission interconnection queues. It also offers reliability because the lack of grid adage helps guarantee performance, and affordability because the company doesn’t have to pay utility rates, Behar said. Additionally, the electricity is decoupled from the grid and therefore absolutely decoupled from fossil fuels, which is important to Hy Stor’s prospective offtakers.

“This is what customers are demanding,” Behar said, adding that first movers are highly dedicated to decarbonization, needing quantitative accounting for all scope emissions, driven often by pressure from their customers.

The company has received a permit to take 11,000 gallons per minute of unpotable water from the Leaf River in Mississippi, Behar said, and is also looking at in-house wastewater treatment and water recycling.

Don’t go after gray users

Behar said the concept that users of gray hydrogen are the first targets for green hydrogen developers is misguided.

“The refineries, the petrochemicals, for them hydrogen is an end product already used within their system,” Behar said. “Those are not going to be the first users that are going to pay us a premium for that zero carbon.”

Hy Stor is instead focusing on new greenfield facilities that can co-locate.

“We’ve purposefully outsized our acreage,” she said of the 70,000 acres the company has purchased outside of Jackson, Mississippi, the Mississippi River Corridor, and the state’s southern deepwater ports in Gulfport and Port Bienville. New industrial projects can co-locate and have direct access to the salt cavern storge.

Looking forward the company’s acreage and seven salt domes mean they are not constrained by storage, Behar said. At each location, the company can develop tens and hundreds of caverns.

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Exclusive: Inside Strata’s P2X strategy

Strata Clean Energy is seeking to engage with global chemical, energy, and shipping companies as a potential partner for a pipeline of green hydrogen projects that will have FIDs in 2025 and CODs later this decade.

Strata Clean Energy is developing a pipeline of green hydrogen projects that will produce large amounts of green ammonia and other hydrogen derivatives later this decade.

Mike Grunow, executive vice president and general manager of Strata’s Power-to-X platform, said in an interview that the company is investing in the development of proprietary modeling and optimization software that forms part of its strategy to de-risk Power-to-X projects for compliance with strict 45V tax credit standards.

“We’re anticipating having the ability to produce substantial amounts of low-carbon ammonia in the back half of this decade from a maturing pipeline of projects that we’ve been developing, and we’re looking to collaborate with global chemical, energy, and shipping companies on the next steps for these projects,” he said.

Strata’s approach to potential strategic offtakers could also include the partner taking an equity stake in projects, “with the right partner,” Grunow said. The projects are expected to reach FID in 2025.

Grunow declined to comment on the specific size or regional focus of the projects.

“We aspire for the projects to be as large as possible,” he said. “All of the projects are in deep discussions with the regional transmission providers to determine the schedule at which more and more transmission capacity can be made available.”

Strata will apply its expertise in renewable energy to the green hydrogen industry, he said, which involves the deployment of unique combinations of renewable energy, energy storage, and energy trading to deliver structured products to large industrial clients, municipal utilities and regulated utilities.

The company “commits to providing 100% hourly matched renewable energy over a guaranteed set of hours over the course of an entire year for 10 – 20 years,” Grunow said.

“It’s our expectation that the European regulations and more of the global regulations, and the guidance from the US Treasury will require that the clean energy supply projects are additional, deliverable within the same ISO/RTO, and that, eventually, the load of the electrolyzer will need to follow the production of the generation,” he said.

Strata’s strategy for de-risking compliance with the Inflation Reduction Act’s 45V revenue stream for green hydrogen will give asset-level lenders certainty on the delivery of a project’s IRA incentives.

“Right now, if I’m looking at a project with an hourly matched 45V revenue stream, I have substantial doubt about that project’s ability to actually staple the hourly matched RECs to the amount of hydrogen produced in an hour, to the ton of hydrogen derivative,” he said.

During the design phase, developers evaluate multiple electrolyzer technologies, hourly matching of variable generation, price uncertainty and carbon intensity of the grid, plant availability and maintenance costs along with evolving 45V compliance requirements.

Meanwhile, during the operational phase, complex revenue streams need to be optimized. In certain markets with massive electrical loads, an operator has the opportunity to earn demand response and ancillary service revenues, Grunow said.

Optimal operations

“The key to maximizing the value of these assets is optimal operations,” he said, noting project optionality between buying and selling energy, making and storing hydrogen, and using hydrogen to make a derivative such as ammonia or methanol.

Using its software, Strata can make a complete digital twin of a proposed plant in the design phase, which accounts for the specifications of the commercially available electrolyzer families.

Strata analyzes an hourly energy supply schedule for every project it evaluates, across 8,760 hours a year and 20 years of expected operating life. It can then cue up that digital project twin – with everything known about the technology options, their ability to ramp and turn down, and the drivers of degradation – and analyze optimization for different electrolyzer operating formats. 

“It’s fascinating right now because the technology development cycle is happening in less than 12 months, so every year you need to check back in with all the vendors,” he said. “This software tool allows us to do that in a hyper-efficient way.”

A major hurdle the green hydrogen industry still needs to overcome, according to Grunow, is aligning the commercial aspects of electrolysis with its advances in technological innovation.

“The lender at the project level needs the technology vendor to take technology and operational risk for 10 years,” he said. “So you need a long-term service agreement, an availability guarantee, key performance metric guarantees on conversion efficiency,” he said, “and those guarantees must have liquidated damages for underperformance, and those liquidated damages must be backstopped by a limitation of liability and a domestic entity with substantial credit. Otherwise these projects won’t get financed.”

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Denbury to transport CO2 for Louisiana blue methanol project

A subsidiary of Denbury Inc. will transport and store CO2 for a planned blue methanol plant in Lake Charles, Louisiana.

Denbury Carbon Solutions has executed a 20-year definitive agreement to provide CO2 transportation and storage services to Lake Charles Methanol in association with that company’s planned 3.6 MMPTA blue methanol project, according to a press release.

LCM’s facility will be located along the Calcasieu River near Lake Charles, Louisiana, approximately 10 miles from Denbury’s Green Pipeline.

The facility is designed to utilize Topsoe’s SynCORTM technology to convert natural gas into hydrogen which will be synthesized into methanol while incorporating carbon capture and sequestration.

The process is anticipated to deliver more than 500 million kilograms of hydrogen per year as a feedstock to produce the 3.6 MMTPA of blue methanol.

LCM is finalizing its major permits to begin construction. The project is expected to reach a Final Investment Decision in 2023 with first production anticipated in 2027.

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