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Hawaiian Airlines reaches conditional SAF offtake deal with Gevo

Gevo expects to supply the SAF from a facility to be constructed in the Midwestern United States and begin deliveries starting in 2029.

Hawaiian Airlines has reached an agreement with biofuel company Gevo, Inc. to purchase 50 million gallons of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) over five years.

Gevo expects to supply the SAF from a facility to be constructed in the Midwestern United States and begin deliveries to Hawaiian’s gateway cities in California starting in 2029, according to a news release.

“This offtake agreement gets us one step closer to achieving our goal of net-zero carbon emissions by 2050,” said Peter Ingram, Hawaiian’s president and CEO. “We intend to continue to invest in SAF, which will be pivotal in reducing our impact on the environment.”

“Gevo is pleased to welcome Hawaiian Airlines to our customer family of airlines that are working hard to achieve their net zero goals,” said Gevo CEO Dr. Patrick Gruber. “By counting all of the carbon, analyzed using Argonne’s GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) method, we are working to help airlines realize these goals.”

Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET model measures the greenhouse gas life cycle impacts of fuels, from feedstock to production through combustion.

Gevo will produce SAF using residual starch from inedible field corn, grown using regenerative farming practices. The production process also will utilize renewable electricity and renewable natural gas, resulting in low-carbon fuels with substantially reduced carbon intensity (the level of greenhouse gas emissions compared to standard petroleum fossil-based fuels across their life cycle). Gevo’s process is designed to maximize value and minimize waste by using the same acre of farmland to produce both animal feed and renewable fuels while sequestering atmospheric carbon through photosynthesis.

The fuel sales agreement is subject to certain conditions precedent, including Gevo developing, financing, and constructing the facility to produce the SAF contemplated by the agreement.

Hawaiian has launched several sustainability initiatives in recent years including a partnership with Par Hawaii, the state’s largest provider of energy products, to study the commercial viability of producing SAF in Hawaiʻi.

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Brookfield-backed CCS developer raises CAD 200m

BMO Capital Markets advised Canada Growth Fund on a CAD 200m investment in Entropy, which was coupled with a fixed-price carbon credit purchase agreement of up to one million tonnes per annum.

Canada Growth Fund Inc. has entered into a strategic investment agreement with Entropy Inc., a Calgary-based developer of carbon capture and sequestration projects.

CGF has agreed to a CAD 200m investment in Entropy coupled with a fixed-price carbon credit purchase agreement of up to one million tonnes per annum, according to a news release.

Once fully drawn, the investment could result in CGF owning approximately 20% of Entropy. Brookfield will continue to invest the balance of its existing CAD 300m hybrid security into the business, by which point it would be the largest shareholder and control Entropy.

Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP and BMO Capital Markets acted as advisors to Canada Growth Fund Inc.

Burnet, Duckworth & Palmer LLP and TD Securities Inc. acted as advisors to Entropy Inc.

According to the release, the strategic growth partnership represents an important new investment in Canadian carbon markets. The features of the CCO—notably its large scale and its long-term fixed-price—represent a global first in compliance markets. This financeable structure helps to de-risk and accelerate private CCS investment by establishing carbon price certainty for Canadian projects.

One pillar of CGF’s mandate is to invest in projects and technologies, including CCS, that hold significant potential to reduce emissions across the Canadian economy. A second pillar is to scale promising Canadian clean technology champions that can help create value for Canadians.

In March 2022, Entropy announced a strategic CAD 300 million investment agreement with Brookfield, via the Brookfield Global Transition Fund, to scale up the deployment of Entropy’s CCS technology globally. Today’s announcement builds on this strong foundation and provides greater revenue certainty to accelerate Entropy’s major investments in Canada.

Transaction Highlights

  • Definitive agreements between Entropy and CGF to accelerate the decarbonization of hard-to-abate industries in Canada;
  • CGF to invest CAD 200m in Entropy for the development of Canadian CCS projects and for corporate purposes which, once fully drawn, could result in CGF owning approximately 20% of Entropy;
  • Brookfield will continue to invest the balance of its existing CAD 300 million hybrid security into the business, by which point it would be the largest shareholder and control Entropy;
  • CGF to provide the first ever large-scale, long-term, fixed-price CCO in a compliance carbon market, committing to purchase up to one million tpa of carbon credits for 15 years;
  • The initial allocation of CCO commitment will allow Entropy to proceed with its Glacier Phase 2 project, targeting the sale of up to 185,000 tpa of Alberta TIER carbon credits at an initial price of $86.50 per tonne for a term of 15 years;
  • The balance of the remaining CCO will be available for Entropy to underwrite additional third-party projects on similar terms in Canada;
  • Post-investment, Entropy will have approximately CAD 460 million of capital available which, together with investment tax credits, carbon capture incentives and project financing, establishes a path to execute over CAD 1 billion of CCS projects and abate more than 1 million metric tonnes per annum (“MMTPA”) of emissions, with a focus on the Canadian market.

Deal Structure Overview 

CGF’s investment in Entropy is via a hybrid security similar to the prior investment from Brookfield (please see Entropy news release dated March 28, 2022), though at a valuation that reflects the numerous advancements of the business in the last two years. The flexible structure ensures access to capital for Entropy and retains flexible liquidity options for all major investors including Brookfield, CGF and Advantage (the Company’s controlling shareholder). Funding draws from Brookfield and CGF for Canadian projects and corporate purposes will proceed in tandem.

Coupled with the CGF investment, Entropy and CGF have entered into a CCO agreement whereby CGF has committed to purchase up to 9 million tonnes (up to 600,000 tpa over a 15-year term) of TIER or equivalent carbon credits from Entropy projects. The initial project to benefit from the CCO is intended to be Advantage Glacier Phase 2, drawing up to 185,000 tpa at an initial price of $86.50 per tonne, for a total of approximately 2.8 million tonnes over the 15-year term. With this CCO agreement in place, CGF has absorbed the carbon pricing risk for the project. Entropy is therefore pleased to announce provisional final investment decision of Glacier Phase 2.

Beyond Glacier Phase 2, CGF and Entropy intend to enter into separate CCO agreements for other Canadian projects, on terms that are expected to provide similar investment returns. Upon successful deployment of the initial 600,000 tpa of CCO, CGF may make available a further 400,000 tpa of CCOs for additional Entropy Canadian CCS projects.

CGF will nominate one member to the Entropy Board of Directors and is pleased to participate in the growth and evolution of this Canadian clean technology leader. Advantage and Brookfield will retain their existing Entropy board representation.

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Verdagy hires chief commercial officer from Plug Power

Electrolyzer start-up Verdagy has hired a chief commercial officer from Plug Power.

Verdagy, a green hydrogen electrolysis company with over a decade of technology and product development, announced today the appointment of David Bow as Chief Commercial Officer (CCO). Bow will lead Verdagy’s revenue, sales and business development.

“I am excited to join Verdagy at a pivotal time as the company scales up commercial deployments and decarbonizes hard-to-abate industries,” Bow said in a news release. “I will apply my decades of experience in the hydrogen and electrolyzer domains to successfully drive Verdagy’s revenue growth targets.”

Bow recently served as Executive Vice President of Plug Power’s Electrolyzer Solutions, where in three years, he advanced Plug from a new player in the electrolyzer system market to a global leader. He previously held the position of Senior Vice President of Global Business Development at Nel Hydrogen. Prior to Nel, Bow was the Senior Vice President of Sales and Marketing, Proton OnSite. Early in his career, Bow developed electrolyzers for the purification of biochemicals used in biotherapeutics.

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Italy’s Eni to invest $835m in Louisiana biorefinery

Eni Sustainable Mobility will invest in a biorefinery being built by PBF Energy in Louisiana.

Eni Sustainable Mobility and PBF Energy Inc. have entered into definitive agreements to partner in a 50-50 joint venture, St. Bernard Renewables LLC (SBR), for the biorefinery currently under construction co-located with PBF’s Chalmette Refinery in Louisiana (US).

Upon consummation of the transaction, which is subject to customary closing conditions, including regulatory approvals, Eni Sustainable Mobility will contribute capital totaling $835m plus up to additional $50m that is subject to the achievement of eventual project milestones and will provide expertise in biorefining operations, supply and marketing.

Citi is serving as financial advisor to PBF Energy.

PBF brings its strong industrial know-how in the United States and, as the contributor of the biorefinery, will continue to manage project execution and serve as the operator once construction is complete. The St. Bernard Renewables biorefinery startup is scheduled in the first half of 2023 and the facility is currently targeted to have processing capacity of about 1.1 million tonnes/year of raw materials, with full pretreatment capabilities. It will produce mainly HVO Diesel (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil, commonly known as ‘renewable diesel’ in North America), with a production capacity of 306 million gallons per year. The biorefinery will use the Ecofining™ process developed by Eni in cooperation with Honeywell UOP.

This strategic partnership will leverage the experience and expertise of Eni Sustainable Mobility and PBF. Together with Ecofining™ technology, Eni brings its experience in biorefining that led to the world’s first conversion of a refinery into a biorefinery in Porto Marghera (Venice) in 2014, and to the second converted biorefinery that has been working in Gela (Sicily) since 2019. The company also provides its worldwide knowledge in supplying sustainable feedstock sourcing for HVO, mainly based on oily waste and residues, and raw materials that do not compete with the food chain, coupled with access to international markets beyond PBF’s footprint in the United States.

PBF brings experience in large capital project execution and fuels manufacturing as well as access to the California renewables market through its existing logistics assets. The joint venture reflects both partners’ commitment to deliver more sustainable transportation fuels using low carbon intensity feedstocks.

“Joining St. Bernard Renewables biorefinery project enables Eni to enter into US biofuels growing market together with a strong partner such as PBF. This is a further step for Eni Sustainable Mobility to expand its biorefining capacity, that today is over 1 million tonnes/year and it is planned to grow in the upcoming years. Following results achieved in Venice and Gela, Eni Sustainable Mobility is a pioneer in the biorefining industry, and it is also studying possible construction of two new biorefineries in Italy and in Malaysia. We do believe the role of HVO will strongly contribute to decarbonization of road transports, including hard to abate heavy duty sector, as it leverages existing infrastructure and can immediately fuel existing vehicle fleets. Biofuels are part of Eni strategy to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 through the reduction of the emissions generated during the entire products life cycle”, Stefano Ballista, CEO of Eni Sustainable Mobility, said.

“We’re excited to enter this strategic partnership with Eni Sustainable Mobility, a global leader in biorefining. The SBR biorefinery will benefit greatly from PBF and Eni’s complementary strengths and expertise. The project will utilize existing processing infrastructure and diverse inbound and outbound logistics and is ideally situated to support growing demand for low-carbon fuels,” said PBF President Matthew Lucey. “Our partnership with Eni signals a major milestone for PBF and demonstrates our commitment to contributing diversified sources of energy to the global mix while lowering the carbon intensity of our operations and the products we manufacture.”

SBR will operate as an independent entity with feed procurement and product distribution managed by a dedicated team working on behalf of the St. Bernard Renewables joint venture. While the partnership is set to benefit from its co-location with PBF’s Chalmette refinery through a variety of shared services, the operations and ownership of the Chalmette refinery will not be affected by the formation of the partnership.

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Exclusive: Hydrogen adoption and production firm prepping capital raise

A decarbonization services provider is in development on multiple utility-owned hydrogen adoption projects in the Northeast, Texas and Georgia and is preparing to launch a capital raise in 3Q24.

Celadyne, a Chicago-based decarbonization and hydrogen solutions company, will launch a Series A this year as it continues its role in the development of several utility-owned hydrogen adoption projects in the US, founder and CEO Gary Ong told ReSource.

A $20m to $30m capital raise will likely launch in 3Q24, Ong said. The company is relying on existing investors from its recent seed round to advise, and the amount could change based on grants.

While the $4.5m seed round allowed the company to focus on transportation mobility, the Series A will be used to do more work on hydrogen production, so the company will be looking for strategics in oil and gas, renewable energy, and utilities.

DLA Piper is the company’s legal advisor, Ong said.

Celadyne has a contract signed with a utility in the Northeast for a small electrolysis demonstration and, following that, a multimillion-dollar project. Discussions on how to finance that latter project are underway.

Additional electrolysis projects in Texas and Georgia are in later discussions, while less mature deals are taking shape with a nuclear customer in Illinois and another project in Southern California, Ong said.

Fuel cell customers (typically OEMs that use hydrogen) to which Celadyne ships equipment are clustered mostly in Vancouver, Michigan and California.

Meanwhile, Celadyne has generated revenues from military contracts of about $1m, Ong said, a source of non-recurring revenue that has prodded the company to look for a fuel cell integration partner specific to the defense application.

‘Blocking hydrogen’

The company, founded in 2019, is focused on solving for the demand and supply issues for which the fledgling US hydrogen market is notorious. Thus, it is split-focused between hydrogen adoption and production.

Celadyne has developed a nanoparticle coating that can be applied to existing fuel cell and electrolyzer membranes.

On the heavy-duty side, such as diesel generators or back-up power, the company improves durability of engines between 3X and 5X, Ong said.

On the electrolysis side, the technology improves rote efficiency by 15%. In production, Celadyne is looking for pilot projects and verification studies.

“We’re very good at blocking hydrogen,” he said. “In a fuel cell or electrolyzer, when you have hydrogen on one side and oxygen on the other side, you need something to make sure the hydrogen never sees the oxygen,” noting that it improves safety, reduces side reaction chemistry and improves efficiency.

Hydrogen adoption now will lead to green proliferation later should the economics prove out, according to Ong. If not, blue hydrogen and other decarbonized sources will still pave the way to climate stability.

The only negative for that is the apparent cost-floor for blue hydrogen in fuel cell technologies, Ong said, as carbon capture can only be so cost efficient.

“So, if the price floor is say, $3.25 or $3.50 per kg, it doesn’t mean that you cannot use it for things like transportation, it just means that it might be hard to use it for things like shipping, where the fuel just has to be cheaper,” Ong said.

Three companies

Celadyne is split into three focus applications: defense, materials, and production. If only one of those wings works, Ong said he could see selling to a strategic at some point.

“If any of those things work out, we ought to become a billion-dollar company,” he said.

If all three work out, Ong will likely seek to do an IPO.

An acquisition could be driven by an acquiror that can help Celadyne commercialize its products faster, he said.

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exclusive

US hydrogen developer auditioning bankers

A US-based clean fuels developer has large capital needs for unannounced green hydrogen projects in California and Illinois, as well as an ammonia facility in Texas.

A US-based clean fuels developer has large capital needs for unannounced green hydrogen projects in California and Illinois, as well as an ammonia facility in Texas.

Avina Clean Hydrogen has yet to formally engage an investment banker to raise the equity and debt needed for a trio of projects under development in the US, CEO Vishal Shah said in an interview.

The company, which recently announced the formation of a strategic advisory board composed of executives from companies like Cummins, bp and Rolls Royce, will need $600m or more of debt and between $200m and $300m of equity, as previously reported by ReSource. Capital raising talks are focused on the operating company and project level.

Capital raises for Avina’s 700,000 mtpa green ammonia project in the Texas Gulf Coast and a larger operating company raise will launch next month, Shah said.

“The amounts that we are going to need to raise have gone up,” Shah said. “We are working with a number of banks but we’ve not engaged anyone formally.”

Buildout of the Texas project has been accelerated. The company recently announced an agreement with KBR for that project, which is scheduled to come online next year.

Project level capital has been raised for Texas and a green hydrogen project in Southern California, Shah said. An additional green hydrogen project in Illinois is in development as well.

Finding the renewable power

Renewable power needs for these facilities are big, but Shah said the company doesn’t see a shortage of power. Instead, developers are facing interconnection issues and subsequent cost increases.

Hydrogen developers in California are in many cases offering higher prices for renewable energy than other buyers, Shah said. The issue is that credit-worthy investment counterparties are often seen as more attractive offtakers regardless of the higher price offers from aspiring hydrogen producers.

“I would say California is different,” Shah said. “The offtake market is a challenge.”

There are renewables developers with a genuine interest in hydrogen looking at the sector as a long-term play, Shah said. But for some without a strategic interest in hydrogen, a community choice aggregator offering a 15-year offtake is more certain than a hydrogen developer offering a 10-year offtake; higher price can be seen as a trade-off.

“That’s the nature of the beast, right now.”

Regulatory uncertainty

Investors looking into the space are hesitating to deploy capital in some cases because of uncertainty around IRA clarifications, particularly with regards to the PTC qualifications, Vishal said.

“A lot of the customers, lenders, everybody’s waiting to make decisions,” Vishal said. Offtakers also have hesitations. “Nobody wants to sign long-term contracts in an environment where pricing is not clear.”

Shah said investors should look for offtake when investing in projects. Avina has two of three contracts signed for each of its projects.

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exclusive

Renewables developer exploring move into green hydrogen

North Carolina-based Strata Clean Energy is engaged with engineers and consultants in preparations for a potential move into the production of green hydrogen.

Strata Clean Energy, the North Carolina-based utility-scale renewables developer, is researching locations in the U.S. where it could potentially build a green hydrogen production plant, executives said in an interview.

“We’ve been doing some hydrogen work for the past few years,” said Tiago Sabino Dias, former CEO of Crossover Energy, which was acquired by Strata in a deal announced this week. That forward momentum on green hydrogen and other areas of the energy transition was part of the reason the deal with Strata was made, he said.

Sabino Dias is now the senior vice president of origination at Strata following the takeover.

“We’ve done a lot of work thinking about where the high-value locations are,” Strata’s Chief Development Officer Josh Rogol said in a separate interview.

Hydrogen is adjacent to Strata’s core competencies in energy storage, Rogol said. The company is confident it could supply the green kilowatt hours for hydrogen production and is researching offtake scenarios in transportation and industrial uses.

Strata has a 13 GW project pipeline of standalone and combined solar and storage, according to its website, with 4 GW under management.

The company’s IPP has about 1 GW with ambitions to grow, Rogol said. It’s go-forward pipeline comprises more than 100 projects across 26 states.

Strata is now engaged with several consultants and engineers to explore green hydrogen opportunities, Rogol said. The company is open to new advisory relationships across verticals.

“We think we are really well positioned to be both the energy supplier, as well as the molecule producer,” Rogol said. The capabilities and intellectual property acquired through Crossover put the firm six to 18 months ahead of other nascent developers.

Early-stage development in green hydrogen can be funded with Strata’s balance sheet, similar to Strata’s bilateral takeover of Crossover, Rogol said. Later stage development and EPC will require “an ecosystem of partners” potentially both financial and strategic, he added.

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