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Maritime MoU to explore West Coast ammonia feasibility

The study aims to explore possibility to utilize existing ammonia storage terminal at port of Stockton for a pilot demonstration project of ammonia bunkering for car carriers.

American Bureau of Shipping, CALAMCO, Fleet Management Limited, Sumitomo Corporation and TOTE Services, LLC have executed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to jointly conduct a feasibility study with the aim to be one of the pioneers in establishing a comprehensive and competitive supply chain for the provision of clean ammonia ship-to-ship bunkering in the US West Coast.

The study will be conducted at the Port of Oakland, Benicia and nearby major ports in U.S. West Coast, according to a news release.

Ammonia, which does not emit any CO2 when combusted, has long been considered one of the most promising alternative marine fuels to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) direct emissions within the shipping industry which aligns with the revised International Maritime Organization (IMO) strategy to reach net-zero emissions from international shipping “close to” 2050 on a life-cycle basis.

CALAMCO is a California based cooperative composed of grower members, as well as the largest ammonia distributer in California. The study aims to explore possibility to utilize CALAMCO’s existing ammonia storage terminal at port of Stockton for a pilot demonstration project of ammonia bunkering for car carriers calling at port of Benicia and container vessels calling at port of Oakland as a first step toward wide adoption of ammonia as marine fuel in the US West Coast.

Port of Benicia is one of the key vehicle-handing ports in U.S. West Coast, while Port of Oakland also rank among top 10 of US largest container ports.

Safety assessments are critical to formulate standards for use of ammonia as a marine fuel due to the toxicity of the substance. Relevant government agencies and experts in the US will be engaged in working towards the standardization of safe operation and regulations, the news release states.

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Green hydrogen developer raises $250m from Generate Capital

Green hydrogen developer Ambient Fuels completed the capital raise to support its pipeline of projects.

Generate Capital, a leading sustainable infrastructure investment and operating company, has made an investment in Ambient Fuels, a pioneering developer that builds green hydrogen projects to support the decarbonization of heavy industries and transportation, according to a news release.

The agreement includes a commitment to fund up to $250m of green hydrogen infrastructure. The funding supports Ambient Fuels’ fast-growing pipeline of projects.

CEO Jacob Susman said in an interview earlier this year with ReSource that the company was in exclusivity with an investor.

Susman declined to name the private equity provider but said the backing will allow Ambient to develop several projects, as well as acquire projects from other developers. The deal was proceeding without the help of a financial advisor, he said at the time.

Ambient Fuels offers custom-engineered green hydrogen solutions, overseeing every step of execution—from project development and design to financing and construction—of its renewable hydrogen centers. The company’s technology-agnostic approach works with any renewable energy source to support decarbonization at scale. With experience across both conventional and renewable energy as well as industrial and chemical processes, the Ambient Fuels team offers deep development and technical expertise.

“Joining forces with a global sustainability leader such as Generate gives us access not only to the capital we need to grow our business but also to a trusted and strategic partner who is committed to our long-term success,” said Jacob Susman, chief executive officer of Ambient Fuels. “Our collaboration with Generate Capital supercharges our ability to meet the unique needs of our customers by delivering the green hydrogen facilities they require for their decarbonization efforts.”

“For the last decade, Generate Capital has been partnering with leading project developers and technology companies to de-risk, accelerate and scale innovative, sustainable infrastructure,” said Scott Jacobs, co-founder and chief executive officer of Generate Capital. “We are excited to work with the team at Ambient Fuels to deliver effective and cost-competitive solutions to emission-intensive sectors that have traditionally been considered hard to decarbonize.”

“Since SJF Ventures led the seed financing for Ambient Fuels in late 2021, the firm has developed a strong pipeline of green hydrogen projects,” said Dave Kirkpatrick, co-founder and managing director of SJF. “Generate has been extremely successful at scaling critical, sustainable infrastructure so we are delighted to partner with them to get all these projects built.”

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US fuel cell developer garners tax equity investments

Connecticut-based fuel cell developer FuelCell Energy has closed on tax equity financings supporting at least three fuel cell projects in the US.

Connecticut-based fuel cell developer FuelCell Energy has closed on tax equity financings supporting at least three fuel cell projects in the US.

The company closed on a tax equity financing transaction with East West Bank for the 7.4 MW fuel cell project located on the US Navy Submarine Base in Groton, CT, also known as the Submarine Force. East West Bank’s tax equity commitment, closed in August 2021, totals $15m.

FuelCell Energy installed 7.4 MW of SureSource™ power platforms at the U.S. Navy Submarine Base in Groton, CT to provide a long-term supply of power to an existing electrical substation, according to a news release. The fuel cell plant is part of a multifaceted plan by the Connecticut Municipal Electric Energy Cooperative to provide new power resources and support the desire of the Department of Defense to add resiliency and grid independence to key military installations. The highly efficient fuel cell power generation project minimizes carbon output while providing continuous power to the strategic military base. The U.S. Navy continues to purchase power from CMEEC and Groton Utilities, who in turn purchase the power from FuelCell Energy under a 20-year power purchase agreement.

This pay-as-you-go structure enables CMEEC and the Navy to avoid a direct investment in owning the power plant which will be operated and maintained by the company.

The company also closed on a tax equity sale-leaseback financing transaction for the 1.4 MW SureSource 1500™ biofuels fuel cell project with the City of San Bernardino Municipal Water Department in California with Crestmark Equipment Finance, a division of MetaBank®. Crestmark’s commitment totals $10.2m through a ten-year sale-leaseback structure and further demonstrates the market’s interest in FuelCell Energy’s differentiated ability to use on-site biofuels, to eliminate flaring and deliver carbon neutral decarbonization energy platforms.

A third tax equity investment in 2021 came from Franklin Park for the 7.4  MW fuel cell project located in Yaphank, Long Island, in New York. Franklin Park’s tax equity commitment totals $12.7m following the declaration of mechanical completion of the project.

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bp makes $10m investment in US-based biofuels developer

bp has led the Series B investment round in US-based WasteFuel, with a $10m commitment.

bp expanded its investment in bioenergy today as bp ventures committed $10m, leading the Series B investment round, in WasteFuel, a California-based biofuels company that will use proven, scalable technologies to convert bio-based municipal and agricultural waste into lower carbon fuels, such as bio-methanol, according to a news release.

The company plans to develop multiple bio-methanol plants around the world in collaboration with local strategic partners including waste companies. WasteFuel expects its first project will be in Dubai and the company has a pipeline of additional projects to develop. bp and WasteFuel have entered a memorandum of understanding for bp to offtake the produced bio-methanol and to work together to help optimize and improve bio-methanol production.

WasteFuel’s deployment of anaerobic digestion and methanol production technologies will convert municipal and agricultural waste into viable lower emission alternatives to traditional fuels, like bio-methanol.

In hard-to-abate sectors, such as shipping, bio-methanol has the potential to play a significant role in decarbonization. Maritime transport represents around 90% of trade worldwide, whilst producing 3% of global greenhouse gas emissions. In the effort to reach net zero, some of the biggest companies in the shipping industry are converting to methanol-ready ships. bp is working to establish supplies of lower carbon alternative fuels for the shipping sector and will look to use its trading expertise to bring WasteFuel’s bio-methanol to market.

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Exclusive: Banker enlisted for CO2-to-SAF capital raise

BofA Securities is running a capital raise for a US-based CO2-to-SAF technology provider and project developer with a global pipeline of projects.

eFuels developer Infinium has launched a Series C capital raise along with efforts to advance unannounced projects in its development pipeline, Ayesha Choudhury, head of capital markets, said in an interview.

Bank of America has been engaged to advise on the capital raise.

Infinium recently announced the existence of Project Roadrunner, located in West Texas, which will convert an existing brownfield gas-to-liquids project into an eFuels facility delivering products to both US and international markets. Breakthrough Energy Catalyst has contributed $75m in project equity.

Infinium, which launched in 2020, closed a $69m Series B in 2021, with Amazon, NextEra and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries participating. Its Project Pathfinder in Corpus Christi is fully capitalized.

About a dozen projects, split roughly 50/50 between North America and the rest of the world, are in development now, Choudhury said. The company is always scouting new projects and is looking for partners to provide CO2, develop power generation and offtake end products.

A CO2 feedstock agreement for a US Midwest project with BlackRock-backed Navigator CO2 Ventures was recently scrapped after the latter developer cancelled its CO2 pipeline project.

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Inside Intersect Power’s green hydrogen plans

California-based renewable energy developer Intersect Power anticipates huge capital needs for a quartet of regional energy complexes co-locating wind and solar with green hydrogen production in the Texas Gulf Coast, California and the American West.

Intersect Power, a solar developer that completed a $750m capital raise last year, is developing four large-scale green hydrogen projects that could eventually be spun off into a separate company, CEO Sheldon Kimber said in an interview.

Four regional complexes of 1 GW or more, co-located with renewables, are in development, he said. The first phases of those, totaling several hundred megawatts, will come online between 2026 and 2028.

Initial offtake markets include transportation, sustainable aviation fuel, and hydrogen for industrial use, Kimber said. Ultimately Intersect is aiming to serve ammonia exporters in the US Gulf Coast, particularly those exporting to Japan, Kimber said, adding that the company could contract with ammonia producers. He recently wrapped up a nine-day, fact-finding trip to Japan to better understand what he believes will be the end market for Intersect’s green ammonia.

“If you don’t know who your customer’s customer is, you’re going to get a bad deal,” Kimber said.

Intersects projects under development involve behind-the-meter electrolysis, co-located with Intersect’s wind and solar generation plants. In 2021 the company signed an MOU with electrolyzer manufacturer Electric Hydrogen. The contract is for 3 GW.

Intersect controls the land and is in the process of permitting the four projects, located in Texas, California and another western US location that Kimber declined to name. The primary focus now is commercial development of the offtake and transportation, he said.

‘Boatload of equity’

Kimber said the company will be ready to announced details of the projects when they are ready to seek financing. He estimates that upwards of $12bn will need to be raised for the package of complexes.

“There’s going to be an enormous need for capital,” Kimber said. Debt will make up between 60% and 90% of the raising, along with “a boatload of equity,” he said. Existing investors will likely participate, but as the numbers get bigger new investors will be brought on board.

Intersect has worked with BofA Securities and Morgan Stanley on past capital raise processes, and also has strong relationships with MUFG and Santander.

Moving forward the company could have a broader need for advisory services and could lend knowledge of the sector in an advisory capacity itself, Kimber said.

“The scope and scale of what we’re doing is big enough and the innovative aspect of what we’re doing is advanced enough that I think we have a lot we can bring to these early-stage financings,” Kimber said. “I think we’re going to be a good partner for advisory shops.”

In the short term Intersect has sufficient equity from its investors and is capitalized for the next 18-to-24 months, Kimber said. Last summer the company announced a $750m raise from TPG Rise Climate, CAI Investments and Trilantic Energy Partners North America.

“People don’t want to pay ahead for the growth in fuels,” Kimber said, adding that reaching commercial milestones will build a compelling valuation.

Intersect could spin off its hydrogen developments to capitalize them apart from renewables, Kimber said.

“Every single company in this space is looking at that,” he said. “Do you independently finance your fuels business?”

Avoiding the hype

Right now the opportunity to participate in hydrogen is blurry because there is so much hype following passage of the IRA, Kimber said. Prospective investors should be focused on picking the right partners.

“What you’re seeing right now is everybody believing the best thing for them,” Kimber said, noting that his company has decided to keep relatively quiet about its activities in the clean fuels space to avoid getting caught up in hype. “The IRA happened, and every electrolyzer company raised their prices by fifty percent.”

Of those companies that have announced hydrogen projects in North America, Kimber said he believes only a handful will be successful. Those companies that have successfully developed renewables projects of more than 500 MW are good candidates, as are companies that have managed to keep a fluid supply chain with equipment secured for the next five years.

“That is a very short list,” he said.

Lenders on the debt side will want to start determining how projects will get financed, and which projects to finance, in the next 18 months, Kimber said.

Finding those who have been innovating on the front-end for years and not just jumped in recently is a good start, Kimber said.

“Hydrogen will happen, make no mistake,” Kimber said. He pointed to the recent European directive that 45% of hydrogen on the continent be green by 2030 and Japan’s upcoming directive to potential similar effect. Once good projects reach critical points in their development they will start to trade, probably in late 2024, he said.

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Exclusive: Hydrogen adoption and production firm prepping capital raise

A decarbonization services provider is in development on multiple utility-owned hydrogen adoption projects in the Northeast, Texas and Georgia and is preparing to launch a capital raise in 3Q24.

Celadyne, a Chicago-based decarbonization and hydrogen solutions company, will launch a Series A this year as it continues its role in the development of several utility-owned hydrogen adoption projects in the US, founder and CEO Gary Ong told ReSource.

A $20m to $30m capital raise will likely launch in 3Q24, Ong said. The company is relying on existing investors from its recent seed round to advise, and the amount could change based on grants.

While the $4.5m seed round allowed the company to focus on transportation mobility, the Series A will be used to do more work on hydrogen production, so the company will be looking for strategics in oil and gas, renewable energy, and utilities.

DLA Piper is the company’s legal advisor, Ong said.

Celadyne has a contract signed with a utility in the Northeast for a small electrolysis demonstration and, following that, a multimillion-dollar project. Discussions on how to finance that latter project are underway.

Additional electrolysis projects in Texas and Georgia are in later discussions, while less mature deals are taking shape with a nuclear customer in Illinois and another project in Southern California, Ong said.

Fuel cell customers (typically OEMs that use hydrogen) to which Celadyne ships equipment are clustered mostly in Vancouver, Michigan and California.

Meanwhile, Celadyne has generated revenues from military contracts of about $1m, Ong said, a source of non-recurring revenue that has prodded the company to look for a fuel cell integration partner specific to the defense application.

‘Blocking hydrogen’

The company, founded in 2019, is focused on solving for the demand and supply issues for which the fledgling US hydrogen market is notorious. Thus, it is split-focused between hydrogen adoption and production.

Celadyne has developed a nanoparticle coating that can be applied to existing fuel cell and electrolyzer membranes.

On the heavy-duty side, such as diesel generators or back-up power, the company improves durability of engines between 3X and 5X, Ong said.

On the electrolysis side, the technology improves rote efficiency by 15%. In production, Celadyne is looking for pilot projects and verification studies.

“We’re very good at blocking hydrogen,” he said. “In a fuel cell or electrolyzer, when you have hydrogen on one side and oxygen on the other side, you need something to make sure the hydrogen never sees the oxygen,” noting that it improves safety, reduces side reaction chemistry and improves efficiency.

Hydrogen adoption now will lead to green proliferation later should the economics prove out, according to Ong. If not, blue hydrogen and other decarbonized sources will still pave the way to climate stability.

The only negative for that is the apparent cost-floor for blue hydrogen in fuel cell technologies, Ong said, as carbon capture can only be so cost efficient.

“So, if the price floor is say, $3.25 or $3.50 per kg, it doesn’t mean that you cannot use it for things like transportation, it just means that it might be hard to use it for things like shipping, where the fuel just has to be cheaper,” Ong said.

Three companies

Celadyne is split into three focus applications: defense, materials, and production. If only one of those wings works, Ong said he could see selling to a strategic at some point.

“If any of those things work out, we ought to become a billion-dollar company,” he said.

If all three work out, Ong will likely seek to do an IPO.

An acquisition could be driven by an acquiror that can help Celadyne commercialize its products faster, he said.

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