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MHI completes test of ammonia single-fuel burner

Mitsubishi Heavy Industry tests confirmed stable combustion, reduced nitrogen oxide emissions compared to coal firing, and complete combustion of the ammonia.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has successfully completed a combustion test of an ammonia single-fuel burner as part of its development of ammonia utilization technology for thermal power generation boilers. The testing was conducted using combustion test equipment at the Nagasaki District Research & Innovation Center in Nagasaki, according to a news release.

Utilizing a combustion test furnace with fuel consumption of 0.5 tons per hour (t/h), MHI conducted a single-fuel burner test using an ammonia burner, and a high-ratio ammonia co-firing test with coal. In both cases, the tests confirmed stable combustion, reduced nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions compared to coal firing, and complete combustion of the ammonia.

In addition to its role as an energy carrier allowing efficient transport and storage of hydrogen energy at low cost, ammonia can be used directly as a fuel for thermal power generation, and because it does not emit CO2 during combustion, is expected to contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This combustion test confirmed that the basic structure of the burner simultaneously provides for stable combustion of ammonia and suppression of NOx emissions, passing an important development milestone for practical application of the technology in thermal power generation boilers.

As a next step, MHI plans to conduct a combustion test using an actual size burner in a larger 4t/h combustion test furnace. Based on these results, MHI will then take steps for application of the burner it has developed for thermal power plants in Japan and overseas.

Since fiscal 2021, MHI has been pursuing “development and demonstration of high-ratio ammonia co-firing technology in coal-fired boilers” as part of the Fuel Ammonia Supply Chain Establishment project conducted by the Green Innovation Fund Project of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). This combustion test is part of that project, and by fiscal 2024, MHI plans to develop burners capable of ammonia single-fuel firing for both circular firing and opposed firing type burners.

The Nagasaki District Research & Innovation Center, where the test was conducted, is located in Nagasaki Carbon Neutral Park, MHI Group’s development base for energy decarbonization technologies that commenced operations in August this year. With the success of this combustion test, MHI is accelerating the development of related technologies for practical application in thermal power generation boilers (Note) in Japan and overseas.

MHI Group will continue to propose new solutions that make use of its many proven technologies, including the use of ammonia, which is one of the most promising solutions for reducing CO2 emissions, and promote the energy transition.

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Baker Botts adds energy finance partner

Baker Botts has added Washington, DC-based partner Matthew Gurch, who joins from Stoel Rives.

Baker Botts L.L.P. has added Matthew Gurch to the Energy, Projects & Transactions Section of the Global Projects Department as a partner in the Washington, D.C. office.

Gurch’s practice focuses on advising sponsors and private lenders and multilateral development banks in domestic and international energy and infrastructure project development and financings. His broad-based experience includes tax equity structuring and back leverage debt financings for renewable and energy transition assets, and the development and financing of nuclear and other thermal power generation and oil and gas projects.

“Matt is a highly experienced project development and finance attorney and another key strategic lateral partner hire for the firm,” said Danny David, Managing Partner of Baker Botts. “His experience advising clients with respect to complex domestic and international energy and infrastructure projects will be a great complement to our outstanding offerings in those areas. We are excited to welcome him to the firm.”

He joins the firm from Stoel Rives, where he was a partner in the Corporate practice group and a member of the Energy and Natural Resources Industry Groups.

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Electric Hydrogen to build electrolyzer gigafactory in Massachusetts

The VC-backed company plans to build a 1.2 GW factory, where it will produce its “world’s most powerful” 100 MW electrolyzer offering.

Electric Hydrogen Co., a manufacturer of advanced, industrial-scale hydrogen electrolyzer technology, announced the location of its first factory in Devens, Massachusetts.

The company has leased a newly constructed 187,000 ft2 facility and is now hiring production team members. The Devens factory will have an annual manufacturing capacity of 1.2 GW with production of EH2’s 100 MW green hydrogen electrolyzers commencing in Q1 2024.

“Our company has a single purpose: to make molecules to decarbonize our world,” stated David Eaglesham, EH2’s CTO and co-founder. “Industrial sectors such as fertilizer and steel need new ways to reliably replace fossil resources at costs that work. The machines we will produce at our new factory in Devens will have a transformational impact by enabling ultra-low-cost green hydrogen at an industrial scale.”

Green hydrogen, made by breaking the chemical bonds of water using renewable electricity, is a growth industry that can make an immediate impact on the global climate crisis. Electric Hydrogen expects its technology to establish the standard for industry-wide cost reduction to make green hydrogen cheaper than fossil alternatives.

“There are a lot of factory announcements in our industry, but not a lot of real capacity being built,” said Raffi Garabedian, EH2’s Chief Executive Officer and Co-founder. “We have a backlog of customer orders to fulfill and are moving quickly to build and ship the world’s most powerful electrolyzers.”

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Rolls-Royce and easyJet test hydrogen jet engine

The UK ground test was conducted on an early concept demonstrator using green hydrogen created by wind and tidal power.

Rolls-Royce and easyJet today have successfully tested an aero engine on hydrogen, according to a press release.

The ground test was conducted on an early concept demonstrator using green hydrogen created by wind and tidal power.

The companies have ambition to carry out flight tests, the release states.

The test took place at an outdoor test facility at MoD Boscombe Down, UK, using a converted Rolls-Royce AE 2100-A regional aircraft engine. Green hydrogen for the tests was supplied by the European Marine Energy Centre, generated using renewable energy at their hydrogen production and tidal test facility on Eday in the Orkney Islands.

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Exclusive: Pattern Energy developing $9bn Texas green ammonia project

One of the largest operators of renewable energy in the Americas, San Francisco-based Pattern is advancing a 1-million-ton-per-year green ammonia project in Texas.

Pattern Energy knows a thing or two about large renewable energy projects.

It built Western Spirit Wind, a 1,050 MW project in New Mexico representing the largest wind power resource ever constructed in a single phase in the Americas. And it has broken ground on SunZia, a 3.5 GW wind project in the same state – the largest of its kind in the Western Hemisphere.

Now it is pursuing a 1-million-ton-per-year green ammonia project in Corpus Christi, Texas, at an expected cost of $9bn, according to Erika Taugher, a director at Pattern.

The facility is projected to come online in 2028, and is just one of four green hydrogen projects the company is developing. The Argentia Renewables project in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada is marching toward the start of construction next year, and Pattern is also pursuing two earlier-stage projects in Texas, Taugher said in an interview.

The Corpus Christi project consists of a new renewables project, electrolyzers, storage, and a pipeline, because the electrolyzer site is away from the seaport. It also includes a marine fuels terminal and an ammonia synthesis plant.

Pattern has renewable assets in West and South Texas and is acquiring additional land to build new renewables that would allow for tax incentives that require additionality, Taugher said.

Financing for the project is still coming together, with JV partners and prospective offtakers likely to take project equity stakes along with potential outside equity investors. No bank has been mandated yet for the financing.

Argentia

At the Argentia project, Pattern is building 300 MW of wind power to produce 90 tons per day of green hydrogen, which will be used to make approximately 400 tons per day of green ammonia. The ammonia will be shipped to counterparties in Europe, offtake contracts for which are still under negotiation.

“The Canadian project is particularly exciting because we’re not waiting on policy to determine how it’s being built,” Taugher said. “The wind is directly powering our electrolyzers there, and any additional grid power that we need from the utility is coming from a clean grid, comprised of hydropower.“

“We don’t need to wait for rules on time-matching and additionality,” she added, but noted the renewables will likely benefit from Canada’s investment tax credits, which would mean the resulting ammonia may not qualify under Europe’s rules for renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBO) as recently enacted.

Many of the potential offtakers are similarly considering taking equity stakes in the Argentia project, Taugher added.

Domestic offtake

Pattern is also pursuing two early-stage projects in Texas that would seek to provide green hydrogen to the domestic offtake market.

In the Texas Panhandle, Pattern is looking to repower existing wind assets and add more wind and solar capacity that would power green hydrogen production.

In the Permian Basin, the company has optioned land and is conducting environmental and water feasibility studies to prove out the case for green hydrogen. Pattern is considering local offtake and is also in discussions to tie into a pipeline that would transport the hydrogen to the Gulf Coast.

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California renewables developer taps advisor for capital raise

Utility-scale solar and storage developer RAI Energy has tapped an advisor for a capital raise. The company is evaluating co-development conversion for green ammonia production at projects in Arizona and California.

RAI Energy, the utility-scale solar and storage developer, has hired an advisor as it pursues a capital raise.

The company is working with Keybanc Capital Markets in a process to raise up to $25m, according to two sources familiar with the matter.

In an interview, RAI Energy CEO and owner Mohammed S. Alrai said the company “is excited about having [Keybanc] act as our financial advisors on this fundraising round.” He noted that RAI is first a solar-plus-storage developer and is approaching investors as such.

However, RAI is evaluating co-development conversion for green ammonia production at two of its project sites in Arizona and California, he said.

“Hydrogen is a natural next step,” Alrai said of his company, adding that the end-product would be green ammonia for use in fertilizer production and industrial sectors. Pure hydrogen could also be kept for use in transportation.

A variety of partnerships would be required to develop hydrogen at RAI’s solar sites, Alrai said. The company could need advisory services to structure those partnerships.

RAI is working with engineers on the hydrogen question now and is open to additional technology and finance advisory relationships, he said. The company is also evaluating several electrolyzer manufacturers.

“It’s an open book for us right now,” Alrai said of hydrogen production. “We’re always open to talking to people who can help us.”

For hydrogen project development, RAI would seek project level debt and equity similar to its solar developments, Alrai said. Early-stage project sites in Colorado and New Mexico could also be candidates for hydrogen co-development.

Keybanc delined to comment for this story.

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The partnership will encourage the adoption of Nikola Class 8 zero-emission vehicles with Klean Industries’ partners and feedstock suppliers. Nikola will evaluate offtake opportunities from the company’s green hydrogen projects.

Klean Industries, a Vancouver-based waste-to-value technology provider, has executed an MOU with Nikola Corporation to encourage the adoption of Nikola Class 8 zero-emission vehicles with Klean’s partners and feedstock suppliers.

The two companies will also work on developing green hydrogen supply and dispensing infrastructure in the US and Canada, according to a statement seen by ReSource.

Nikola will evaluate offtake opportunities from green hydrogen projects being developed by Klean and its partners involving hydroelectric, wind and solar power in the Pacific Northwest and Canada. Using Klean’s green hydrogen, the companies will convert Klean’s logistics partners’ truck fleet to Nikola Class 8 zero-emission vehicles.

Both Klean and Nikola see a significant opportunity to collaborate on projects where Klean and its partners operate recycling, resource recovery, and waste-to-energy plants, the statement reads.

“We believe Nikola’s hydrogen-electric trucks are going to fundamentally change the ground transportation and logistics landscape. This exciting collaboration will create opportunities that will reinforce the importance of working together as we look to both deploy and develop a renewable hydrogen value chain,” said Jesse Klinkhamer, CEO of Klean Industries Inc., in a statement. “Developing clean energy projects with leading technology companies such as Nikola supports Klean’s strategic focus and enables our respective companies to create a symbiosis between waste, resources, and energy, while simultaneously helping in the creation of a circular low carbon economy. Green hydrogen has the potential to completely transform the energy landscape and drive a cleaner, more sustainable future.”

Klinkhamer said in an interview last year that Klean was in the process of hiring an advisor to raise between $250m – $500m in a strategic capital raise.

Carey Mendes, president, energy at Nikola said, “Klean’s vision of utilizing a green hydrogen fleet of trucks in their tire recycling ecosystem is a clear indication of the company’s commitment to creating a better, more sustainable future. Klean has already brought together like-minded partners to decarbonize their truck fleets which is a testament to their far-reaching commitment and deep knowledge of this sustainability space.”

Klean recently partnered with City Circle Group to build a fully integrated, continuous tire pyrolysis plant to recover carbon black and biofuel in Melbourne Australia. The company also signed a partnership agreement with H2 Core Systems to distribute and build green hydrogen projects around the globe.

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